The article analyzes the current state of journalism in Uzbekistan, as well as the problems existing in journalistic education and the ways to solve them, the creation of the University of Journalism and Mass Communications in the system of higher and secondary special education of the republic, adopted for the purpose of in-depth study of the features of journalism in the era of globalization, its historical progress , today’s state and prospects.
Key words: journalism, education, mass media, qualification, bachelor, university, master, journalist.
Today more than 1500 mass media operate in Uzbekistan. It should be noted that the mass media carried out a huge work to ensure the information freedom of the republic, as well as the formation of the so-called rostrum for the free expression of the people’s attitudes, attitudes, thoughts and ideas to the events taking place. Active modern media networks are gaining popularity — digital and mobile television, Internet TV, Internet radio and Internet journalism in general. But to provide the 32-million population of Uzbekistan with information, the number of graduated cadres at the Department of International Journalism of the Uzbek State University of World Languages (50 graduates per year), the journalism faculty of the Mirzo Ulugbek National University (80 graduates per year), and the journalism department of the Karakalpak State University . Training of journalists in Uzbekistan is carried out in three universities — the National University, the Uzbek State University of World Languages and the Karakalpak State University.
In the curriculum try to cover a variety of subjects. This practice, on the one hand, allows you to teach and tell students about all possible areas of journalism, but on the other hand, makes the student a «universal soldier», who often does not receive a certain specialization. Now the country needs modern media producers, a media brand and content managers, which should bring national television to a new level. In order for this sphere to compete in the future, it is necessary to start reforms now.
One of the ways to improve the training system of a journalist, designed to combine both the demands of the social order, and the conditions for the functioning of journalism in the media business system, should be the development of a master’s degree in Journalism.
Today, Uzbekistan has developed a system of higher professional education, which includes both continuous training of graduates in the State Educational Standard with the award of a bachelor’s degree (qualification) for a graduate (4 years) and a master’s degree (2 years) .
Trainees in the specialty «Journalism» (qualification «Journalist», the period of study — 4 years) receive a bachelor’s degree. For the future career of a future journalist, a bachelor’s degree is more necessary than a note in the personal file of «incomplete higher education». At the same time, a student who devotes himself to the practical side of a journalist’s activity may subsequently continue his education both within the framework of a second higher education and in a magistracy in the areas of interest to him (Sports Journalism, International Journalism, PR and Information Services, etc.) .
The curriculum for the preparation of a bachelor’s degree in journalism at the journalism faculties of the country assumes the possibility of obtaining the basic set of knowledge necessary for a future specialist in journalism and modern communications.
However, the undergraduate training does not provide in-depth training in special disciplines. A working curriculum for the preparation of a bachelor’s degree in journalism excludes the disciplines of the cycle of special disciplines that, according to the current standard of journalist training, are included in the curriculum on the specialty «Journalism» or in the master’s program of journalism. In the magistracy students are studied various special courses, disciplines of choice in the specialization, held creative workshops and workshops of practical journalists. This does not mean that there are no narrow professional disciplines in the bachelor’s degree. Their list is developed with the involvement of media leaders, and they are provided by practicing experienced journalists.
In addition, the curriculum of bachelor’s training includes the possibility of creating a full-fledged research work. «Graduation qualification work» of the bachelor, work on which involves the allocation of additional study time.
Experience shows the advisability of preparing a student in the specialty «Journalism» (term of training — 4 years), which allows to form a professionally oriented specialist, able to withstand competition in the system requirements to the journalist at the present stage. At the same time, a two-stage system for the training of a journalist (bachelor-master) is also necessary, since it gives an opportunity to choose and further determine his professional career: a bachelor’s degree and practical activity in the field of mass media or continuing education in the magistracy. The parallel functioning of these approaches can contribute to the development of the quality of education in the field of journalism. The solution of problems of the development of journalistic education is currently impossible without improving the technical support of the educational process. There are television studios and radio studios at the faculties of journalism in Uzbekistan, but their equipment remains to be desired, since the existing equipment in the training laboratories has become obsolete and does not meet modern requirements. All this requires significant material costs, but without them, a high-quality journalism education that meets international standards is simply impossible.
In addition, the process of training future journalists can not be full without improving the teaching staff. The faculty of faculty consists of young cadres and it pleases. But a low-paid job (the teacher receives $ 130 a month), a lot of documentation on the design of the educational process, the involvement of teachers in various social events does not leave time to work on themselves.
Today, the professional development of teachers involved in the training of future journalists is limited to one area — «Journalism and Communication». It is necessary to introduce a completely new system of professional development, understanding that a teacher who prepares a future journalist needs more frequent updating of knowledge than a teacher of other fundamental sciences. And also consider the possibility of diversifying the directions for advanced training courses, based on the specifics — tele, radio, print and electronic media.
In recent months, the system of education management has been decentralized in the country. In order to improve the integration of education and production (practice), many educational institutions are transferred to the introduction of direct consumer staff.
According to the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Shavkat Mirziyoyev, during the announcement of the President’s Address to the Senate members and deputies of the Legislative Chamber, «More than 1,500 mass media of various forms of ownership, directions of activity and format of information transfer operate in our country today, all of them need highly qualified Unfortunately, the country does not yet have a higher education institution that would solve these large-scale tasks centrally» (Addresses of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan to the members of the Senate and deputies of the Legislative Chamber of the Oliy Majlis, dedicated to the results of the main work carried out in 2017, and the most priority areas of social and economic development of the Republic of Uzbekistan in 2018 (December 22, 2017).
President of Uzbekistan Shavkat Mirziyoyev on May 24 signed a decree on the formation of the University of Journalism and Mass Communications .
The decision on the establishment of the University of Journalism and Mass Communications in the system of higher and secondary special education of Uzbekistan was made with a view to in-depth study of the features of journalism in the era of globalization, its historical progress, its current state and prospects.
The University of Journalism and Mass Communications, created in the system of higher and secondary special education of Uzbekistan, will deal with a number of areas.
This is, first of all, the training of qualified journalistic cadres who have mastered the specifics of the sphere, the theoretical and practical, philosophical and aesthetic aspects of journalism, the foundations of modern media technologies; wide involvement of students in scientific activities in the development of journalistic education.
Also among the university’s tasks is introduction of modern information technologies and methods of distance learning into the educational process that will allow to develop educational and methodological literature based on the achievements of Russian journalism, the experience of foreign universities in this field and the requirements of modern media.
The University will also develop partnerships with domestic and foreign universities and research centers for the implementation of educational and scientific programs; increase the pedagogical potential of the university by sending promising young graduates to foreign educational institutions and scientific centers for the programs of magistracy and doctoral studies and others.
In the new university entrants are accepted on the basis of test tests and creative examination (interview). In connection with the opening of the profile university from the new academic year, the admission of students to the journalism faculty of the National University of Uzbekistan and the faculty of international journalism of the Ural State Geology and Mineral Resources University, as well as the masters, is being stopped. Students attending these faculties will finish their studies at their existing universities.
The university will become the base university for the training of journalists for the media, including international journalists, who speak several foreign languages, as well as scientific and pedagogical staff on the profile. In addition to training activities, the University of Journalism will conduct research, create a media education system, and also retrain and upgrade the skills of journalists.
- The curriculum of the Faculty of Journalism of the National University of Uzbekistan.
- The curriculum of the Faculty of International Journalism of the Uzbek State University of World Languages
- The University of Journalism and Mass Communication was founded. http://xs.uz/en/post/journalism
Candidate of Philology, Associate Professor of the Faculty
of International Journalism of the Uzbek State University of World Languages